**Research Methodology**

**Research Steps**

Identify research
problem

Research objectives

Methodology

Collection of data

Analysis

Conclusion &
discussion

A Hypothesis is a

**Supposition**
A basic unit of
analysis in a given research study is called

**Respondent**
Difference between
population parameter and sample statistic is called

**Sample error**
Rejection of null
hypothesis when it is known as

**Type 1 error****B Malinowski**first anthropologist who used participant observation method

T formula has been
given by

**Fisher****Durkheim**believed in

**objective approach**of methodology

**Weber**believed in

**subjective approach**of methodology

**F Tonnies –**The aim of sociology is to treat social fact as things

Treat social facts
as things –

**E Durkheim****RM Maclver**- Fact is an empirically verifiable observation

**G Simmel**– The chief advocate of Inverse Deductive Method

**Concept of alienation**as a diagnostic tool for sociological inquiry –

**Hegel**

The Book “

**Division of labour”**–**Emile Durkheim**
Science is to be
judged by three criteria

**reliability of knowledge and its method**
Social Survey data
in tables first developed by –

**Lazarsfeld**
The Book “Street
corner society” –

**WF Whyte**
Middle Range Theory

**– P Sorokin**
The Book “

**League of Iroquios**”**– LH Morgan**

**Match the Pairs**
1)

**Mode**– Central Tendency**Mean Deviation**– Dispersion

**Chi-square**– Association of attributes

**Karl Pearson Method**– Correlation

2)

**Average**– Measures of Central Tendency**Averages of average**– Measures of Dispersion

**Variables**– Correlation

**Attributes**– Chi-square

3)

**Standard Deviation**– a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values**Correlation**– common usage it most often refers to the extent to which two variables have a linear relationship with each other.

**Chi-square**– Explains significance of

**differences between two samples**

**T-test**–

**Explains association with attributes**

**,**also examines whether two samples are different and is commonly used when the variances of two normal distributions are unknown and when an experiment uses a small sample size

4) Dispersion refers
to the

**Central Tendency**
A declarative
statement of relationship among variable is called

**“**Hypothesis**”**
5) Participant
Observation Method –

**WHR Rivers**
Marxian Dialectical
approach –

**DP Mukherjee**
Ideal type Method –

**M Weber**
Trinitarian Model –

**A Beteille**
6)

**Structured Interview****– Research**
Semi Structured
Interview -

**Flexible but structured**
Non-directive –

**In-depth task on issue**
Focused interview
schedule -

**Free depth task on issue**
Syllogistic
Reasoning is

**Deductive**
Logical argument are
based on

**Syllogistic reasoning**
Inductive reasoning
is grounded on

**Uniformity of nature**
A Thesis statement
is

**an****assertion**
The principles of
fundamental research are used in

**Applied Research****Action Research**is carried out to solve immediate problems

**Historical Research**cannot be genralised to another situation

**Null hypothesis-**Hypothesis of no difference or there is no difference between the variables

**CSS-**Cascading Style Sheets

Sampling error
decreases with

**increase in sample size**
Manipulation is
always part of

**Descriptive Research****Variance –**The average of the squared differences from the

**mean**

To

**test null hypothesis**a researcher uses –**X**^{2}
F-test –

**Parametric Test****Regression –**estimating the relationships among variables.

**Venn diagram**– represents and

**assess the validity**of elementary inferences of syllogistic form

The

**Curved line**type relationship is referred as**Non-Linear**relationship

**Definitions****-**Definition is the means of avoiding the ambiguity, vagueness and metaphoric quality of words, concepts and terms and hence of meaning

**Lexical Definition**- To introduce the words of a language to a new comer, be it a baby or a foreigner,**lexical definitions are used for common names**,**lexical definition****which is true or false**, ex. Parrot, book, pen etc.(**Common Names**)**Stipulative Definition**- Whenever a new term is invented, the inventor gave meaning to the term Stipulative**definition is neither true nor false.****Precising Definition –**precise in nature for ex. Adult who is above 18**Theoretical Definition -**A theoretical definition is a definition of a term in terms of theoretically meaningful and adequate and useful conception. For ex. Socrates defines knowledge as ‘True Justified Belief’**Persuasive Definition**– A persuasive definition is one aimed at evoking are emotion or alter an opinion, example of a fundamentalist Christian - who is against abortion – offering a definition of abortion as “the murder of the helpless, and violation of the right of life to the youngest of our citizen”.

**Types of Sampling****A) Probability Sampling –**Involves random selection of elements in which each element has chance of being selected

Random, Stratified
Random, cluster, systematic

**Random Sampling**– All members of population have an equal chance of being selected**Simple Random Sampling**– population divided into groups (age, income location etc) and sub samples are selected from each strata**Stratified Random Sampling –**population is divided in different slabs and the sample will be selected randomly from each slab**Cluster Sampling –**randomly selecting intact groups not individuals, within defined population sharing same characteristic.**Systematic Sampling**- Selecting every Kth subject from list of members of population**Multi-Stage Sampling****Multi-Phase Sampling**

**B) Non- Probability Sampling –**Involves non-random method in the selection of elements in which not all have equal chance of being selected

**Purposive Sampling –**Used when you want to access a particular subset of people based on purpose**Convenience sampling**– Samples are familiar to the researcher for ex. Friends , co-workers**Snowball Sampling**– Is done with the help of study participant to choose other potential participant**Sequential sampling**-**Quota Sampling –**number of sample which must attain**Areal Sampling –**units are divided into small unit

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